Ibn Sina / Avicenna
(Abu Ali Al- Hussain Ibn Abdullah Ibn Sina - 980-1037 C.E)
Known as Shaikh al-Rais (Leader Amongst Wise Man), Ibn Sina, already knew grammar, literature, and theology and memorized the whole of the Quran by the time he was ten. His father took great interest in his studies and found him the best tutors available. For instance, he invited mathematician, al-Natili to stay in his house to teach Ibn Sina mathematics. Under Natili's tutelage, he mastered the Almagest, the Elements of Euclid and logic. Having mastered mathematics, he turned his attention to physics, metaphysics and medicine. By the time he was sixteen, Ibn Sina had mastered all the sciences of his day and was an accomplished physician. At eighteen, thanks to the commentary of al-Farabi, he mastered Aristotle metaphysics, which at first had presented considerable difficulty to him. His mastery of medicine made him a favorite of the ruler who he successfully treated when the latter was seriously ill. As a reward, he negotiated for access the palace library, which was stocked with one of the best collections of books on medieval learning.
Ibn Sina had also been a Wazir and had to, on occasions, assume responsibilities of running a state. Yet, he lived an intense intellectual life as witnessed by the number and nature of his works. He was known to dictate some of his works to a scribe while riding on a horseback with the Amir to battles. None of these distractions affected his intellectual output. On this point his disciple, al-Juzjani was reported to have said, "The studying was done by night because during the day, his attendance upon the Amir left him no spare time." Therefore, despite being immersed in the life of world of politics and court, he was able to lay the foundation of medieval scholastic philosophy, to synthesize the Hippocratic and Galenic traditions of medicine and influence the arts and sciences. His response to friends who advised him to slow down was, "I prefer a short life with width to a narrow one with length".

Within a brief span of 57 years, he produced an astounding number of works on varied subjects on philosophy, science, religion, cosmology and metaphysics. Despite the loss of several of his works, including major ones such the 20 volume Kitab al-insaf on the arbitration on 'Eastern' and 'Western' philosophies, over 250 books treatises, and letters of Ibn Sina have survived. His great work al Qanun fi Tibb (Canon Of Medicine) was translated into Latin towards the end of the twelfth century and became a reference source for medical universities of Europe until the end of the 17th century. To him, education was required for the overall growth of the individual followed by preparation of the individual to live in society through a chosen trade in accordance with his abilities.
Ibn Sina also contributed to mathematics, physics, music and other fields. He made several astronomical observations, and devised a device similar to the vernier, to increase the precision of instrumental readings. In Physics, he contributed to the study of different forms of energy, heat, light and mechanical, and such concepts as force, vacuum and infinity. He made the important observation that if the perception of light is due to the emission of some sort of particles by the luminous source, the speed of light must be finite. He propounded on an interconnection between time and motion, and also made investigations on specific gravity and used an air thermometer.
The influence of Ibn Sina on east and West was immense. In the Islamic world his spirit has dominated the intellectual activity of all later periods. In the West he become known as the 'Prince Of Physicians' and dominated medcial sciences for centuries while his philosophical and theological views left his mark upon many important figures such as Albertus Magnus, St Thomas, Duns Scotus and Roger Bacon.

Al Razi
(Abu Bakr Mohammad Al Razi)
This great physician and alchemist was known as the Rahzes in Europe. He was born in Teheran and also died in his native city. Al Razi wrote close to 200 books all of it were medical in nature. Some of his famous medical books were Kitab Al Mansur, Kitab Al Hawi and Kitab Al Asrar (the book of secrets). He is also considered the inventor of Seton, the one who discovered sulphuric acid and aquavitae.

Jabir Ibn Hayyan
(Geber in Europe)
Known as the father of of Modern Chemistry, he set up a laboratory at Kufa at about 776 CE and he discovered several compounds and wrote many books. Three of his books managed to survive up to this day, Kitab Al Rahmah, Kitab al Tajmi and Al Zibaq al Sharqi.He improved on the methods of evaporation, sublimation, melting and crystallization.

Az Zahrawi / Albucasis
Abu Al-Qasim Khalaf Ibn Abbas Az Zahrawi
Az Zahrawi is a reowned surgeon in the 10th century. He introduced various medical techniques and invented surgical tools from metal in replace of gold and bronze, as well as latest surgery techniques on external and internal organs. Many European experts in the field of surgey learned from Az Zahrawi's books, which contains illustrations as well. 

Al Antaki / David of Antioch 
Da'ud ibn ‘Umar Al Antaki
Da'ud ibn ‘Umar Al Antaki was born blind in Antioch (Syria). Despite his disability, he became a famous pharmacist in the 11th century ad learned many foreign languages (in addition to Arabic), including Greek. His life was dedicated to travelling across Turkey, Syam and Egypt to seek knowledge. He finally resided in Egypt and worked as a senior pharmacist. Al Antaki produced a number of medical books and his famous writing was entitled Tadhkirah or "Memorandum Book", is still available today in bookstalls in Egypt in modern printings. It specifies more than 3000 types of plants with healing powers.



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